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Principles of Breadmaking
Principles of Breadmaking

"...an essential troubleshooting reference for bakers, food technologists, product developers, millers, ingredient suppliers, and new comers to the bakery business and related industries."
—Food Trade Review

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Principles of Breadmaking: Functionality of Raw Materials and Process Steps is designed to give the fundamental principles and science behind the baking rules and recipes most bakers, technologists, and students are accustomed to. Functional properties of ingredients and interactions occurring during each step in the baking process are presented in straightforward chemical and physical terms understandable to anyone with a background in baking. The knowledge gained will allow for the optimization of recipes and processes of all types of bread, including pre-baked breads and frozen doughs.

Most literature on baking emphasizes descriptions of the process or of the equipment. For example, you will find a description of the recipe for hamburger buns that tells you to mix the dough a specific amount of minutes in a specified mixer, etc. Principles of Breadmaking takes a different approach, describing the chemistry and basic physics behind the recipe, what happens with ingredients during mixing, the pros and cons of dough temperatures, conditions for fermentation and proof, and handling of the dough throughout the process. It also describes the transformation of dough into the final product in the oven in terms of heat transfer to the dough and heat transport in the product. By covering the functionality of unit operations and raw materials at this level, the reader is given the foundation needed to optimize recipes and the production process.

Prebaked breads and frozen doughs present their own set of challenges for the baker. This book provides detailed, critical descriptions of the processes involved in creating both. The chapter on prebaked breads discusses cooling, ambient storage, chilled storage, frozen storage, storage in a modified atmosphere, and the rebaking process. Moisture migration, solubility of gases, diffusion of gases, yeast, and drying and condensation are discussed in a chapter dedicated to frozen doughs. Both chapters also include sections on optimizing procedures and recipes.

Principles of Breadmaking: Functionality of Raw Materials and Process Steps is an essential troubleshooting reference for bakers, food technologists, product developers, millers, ingredient suppliers, and newcomers to the bakery business and related industries. In addition, it will be an excellent teaching tool for students learning the fundamentals of breadmaking. It also contains hands-on activities well suited for training sessions and workshops.

  • Teaches the baking professional how to optimize the recipe for any type of bread
  • Describes the functionality of raw materials used in breadmaking
  •  Explains the functionality of mixing, fermentation and proof, baking, and cooling
  • Includes tables of uses for specific carbohydrates
  • Provides international comparisons of HACCP experiences in baking
  • Helps the baking technologist select the optimal conditions for making frozen dough and prebaked bread 
  • Supplies the tools for the best results in baking and re-baking
  • Details the pros and cons of different dough temperatures

Principles of Breadmaking: Functionality of Raw Materials and Process Steps


Principles in Brief

Ingredients and Formulations
Processing Steps

MixingFermentation
Proof
Baking

Gluten and Dough Development, Gas Retention, and Baking Quality

Bread Properties

Fresh Bread
Stored Bread

Interruption of the Breadmaking Process


Basic Ingredients

Wheat Flour: Composition of Wheat

Extraction Rate and Baking Quality
Wheat Flour Components
Tests of the Functionality of Wheat Flour
Flour

Additives
Water
Yeast

The Fermentation Reaction
Commercial Forms of Yeast
Salt


Optional Ingredients

Fat
Emulsifiers
Enzymes

Amylases
Hemicellulases
Other Enzymes

Sugars
Dry Milk Products
Flours from Beans and Pulses
Vital Gluten
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Developments in Bread Improvers


Mixing

Homogenization of the Ingredients
Occlusion of Air
Gluten Development
Intensity of Mixing
Degree of Mixing

Measurement of Degree of Mixing
Influence on Bread Dough Consistency

Dough Temperature
Cooling of Dough
Sponges and Straight Dough


Fermentation and Proof

Initial Growth of Gas Nuclei

Disappearance of Oxygen
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide
Change in Carbon Dioxide State
Pressure in Gas Cells

Stability of Gas Cells and Gas Retention
Treatments During Fermentation
Speed of Fermentation
Change in pH During Fermentation
Fermentation Conditions
Temperature Changes During Fermentation

Fermentation Reaction
Evaporation and Condensation
Air Temperature

Traditional Breadmaking Processes
Short Breadmaking Processes

Mechanical Dough Development
Activated Dough Development
Use of an Enzyme
Increased Yeast

Final Proof


Baking and Cooling

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Radiation
Convection
Conduction
Condensation

Heat Flux and Heat Balance
Heat Transport Within the Dough
Crumb Formation
Crust Formation
Ovenspring
The Role of Water Vapor
Cooling of Bread


Prebaked Bread

The Prebaking Process
Cooling
Ambient Storage
Chilled Storage
Frozen Storage
Storage in a Modified Atmosphere

Contamination
Gas Composition
Packaging Material
Packaging Technology

The Rebaking Process

Prebaking vs. Rebaking
Starch Reversal
Crust Formation
Crust Color
Flavor

Optimization of Recipe and Procedure


Frozen Dough

Background and History
Changes in Dough and Bread Through Freezing
Moisture Displacement
Solubility of Gases
Diffusion of Gases
Yeast
Drying and Condensation
Optimization of Recipe and Procedure

Recipe
Procedure

Fully Proofed Frozen Dough


Recommended Reading
Index
"...an essential troubleshooting reference for bakers, food technologists, product developers, millers, ingredient suppliers, and new comers to the bakery business and related industries."
—Food Trade Review
Publish Date: 2005
Format: 6" × 9" hardcover
ISBN: 978-1-891127-45-8
Pages: 224
Images: 73 images
Publication Weight: 2 lbs

By Piet Sluimer

Principles of Breadmaking: Functionality of Raw Materials and Process Steps

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