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Nutrition: Food and the Environment
Nutrition: Food and the Environment

"The book is extremely well written, creative, factually accurate and very readable."
—Trends in Food Science and Technology

Item No. 40744

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This book reflects the crucial link between nutrition and the environment. The American Dietetic Association and National Institutes of Health have applied this link in their overall organizational philosophies, and other organizations are poised to follow suit. Written as an introductory text, this book is essential reading for food industry professionals who will want to understand how this innovative view of nutrition may impact their products.

Nutrition: Food and the Environment

Preface for the Reader

Thinking Beyond the Picture
What This Book Is About and How It's Organized

Preface for the Instructor

Supplementary Materials
Acknowledgments


CHAPTER 1

Nutrition, Food, and the Environment-The Interrelationship

Some Issues About Nutrition, Food, and the Environment in Our Lives

Food
Water
Air
Medications (Drugs)

What Is Nutrition?

The Science of Food
Nutrients
Other Substances
Action, Interaction, and Balance
In Relation to Health and Disease
Processes by Which Your Body Deals with Ingested Food

How Is Nutritional Information Obtained and Used?
People Are Different-Some Environmental Issues Affecting Food and Nutrition
Nutrition in Action-The Media
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 2

Food: From the Field to the Plate

Food Production and Processing Affect Our Lives in Many Ways
Food and Agricultural Factors Affect Nutrition and Health
Increased Demand for Food
Increased Food Production

Productive Land
Increased Productivity
Increased Exploitation of the Seas
Decreased Food Losses

Environmental and Food Production Changes May Have Negative Effects on the Food Supply
Food Additives
People Are Different-Organic Food
Nutrition in Action-The Nation's Food Protectors
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 3

Nutrients: From the Plate to You

Nutrition and Food in Your Life-Food on Your Plate, Nutrients in Yours Cells
Social, Psychological, and Economic, As Well As Nutritional, Reasons Determine What We Put on Our Plates

Getting Health and Pleasure from Food the Correct Way
Sensory Properties of Food and Drink Are Major Reasons for Their Acceptance or Rejection

How Safe is the Food We Eat?

Microbes in Our Food and in Our Bodies-Some Helpful, Some Harmful
Regulatory Agencies Protect Our Food, but the Final Decisions Affecting Food Safety Are Up to Us

Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization-Changing Food into Nutrients

How Can We Digest Food So Rapidly?
When Do You Need an Antacid?
Why Does Stress Affect the Digestive System?
Do We Have Invited and Uninvited Guests in the Digestive System?
Which Food Produce Gas?
Can Medications Interfere with the Absorption of Nutrients?
What Are the Differences Between Hunger and Appetite?
Is the Liver the Body's Chemical Factory and Detoxification Center?
How Do Nutrients Get to Cells?

People Are Different-Allergies
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 4

Eating Right-The Right Balance

Nutrition in Our Lives-The Right Balance of the Right Foods
Dietary Guidelines for Disease Prevention

Planning Healthy Diets-Putting Dietary Guidelines into Practice
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) Are Guidelines to Balanced Diets
RDAs Are for Groups, Not for Individuals
RDAs for Energy

Nutrition Labels-Importance Sources of Information

Daily Values
Other Information on Labels

Nutritional Status Is Measured in Many Ways

Measuring How Much Food We Eat Is Not Easy
Ethical Considerations Sometimes Limit Measurements of Nutritional Status

People Are Different-Cultural and Ethnic Influences on Food Choice

Native Americans
African-Americans
Chinese-Americans
Hispanics
Religious Influences on Food Intake

Nutrition in Action-Our Changing Food Supply

Agriculturists and Nutritionists Are Rediscovering Some "Forgotten Crops"
"Designer" Foods of the Future

Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 5

Water-Beverages and Brewing

Nutrition in Our Lives-Water, Alcohol, and Other Beverages
Water in the Human Body-Vital in Many Body Processes

Water Is Vital for Many Body Processes
Increased Fluid Intake Is Importance for Many People
Control of Body Fluids
Water Balance Is Critical for Survival

Water Quality Is a Growing Concern in All Parts of the World

What Does "Safety" Mean?

Water in Foods Is Important for Quality and Preservation
There Is More to Drink Than Just Water

Caffeine
Soft Drinks
Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks
Soups
Alcohol

People Are Different-Effect of Alcohol on Nutritional Status
Food Science in Action-Brewing
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 6

Carbohydrates---Cereals, Milling, and Baking

Carbohydrates in Our Lives-Some Confusion and Misinformation About Their Nutritional Value
Carbohydrates Are Sugar, Starch, Fiber, and More

Chemists' and Biochemists' View
Farmers' and Plant Scientists' View
Environmentalists' View
Viewpoint of Nutritionists, Dietitians, Nurses, Medical Doctors, and Physiologists
Dentists' View
Food Scientists' and Food Engineers' View
Biotechnologists' View
Toxicologists' and Food Safety Experts' View
Food Aid and Famine Relief Workers' View
Economists' View
Psychologists' and Behavioral Scientists' View
Sports Physiologists', Athletic Coaches', and Athletes' View

People Are Different-Lactose Content Is a Reason Why Some People Cannot Digest Milk
Nutrition in Action-Milling and Baking

Milling
Baking

Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 7

Lipids-Fats, Oils, and Fat Substitutes

Lipids in Our Lives-Essential, Misunderstood, but Too Much May be Harmful
Lipids Have Many Important Functions in the Body
Lipids in Foods Perform Many Useful Functions
Lipids as Studied by Different Professions

Chemists and Biochemists
Nutritionists, Dietitians, and Physicians
Farmers and Plant and Animal Scientists
Environmentalists
Food Service Managers and Chefs
Food Scientists
Food Safety and Food Toxicology Experts
Economists

The Consumer and the Scientists
People Are Different-Response to Dietary Lipids Varies Among People
Nutrition in Action-Low-Fat, No-Fat, and Light Foods
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 8

Proteins---Meat, Fish, and Other Protein Sources

Proteins in Our Lives-"Protein" Means "of Prime Importance"
Proteins Are Studied by Different Professions

Chemists-Studying Protein Structure and Function
Farmers and Plant and Animal Scientists-Producing High-Quality Protein
Foods
Geneticists-Great Advances but Possible Future Problems
Biotechnologists-Cautious Optimism for a Positive Impact on Protein
Nutrition
Environmental Scientists-Pollution May Be Caused by Intensive Animal Production
Food Scientists-Using Proteins to Make Food More Acceptable
Economists-Protein-Rich Foods Are Usually Expensive
Physiologists-Digestion and Absorption
Biochemists-Studying the Link Between Protein Metabolism and Nutrition
Nutritionists, Dietitians, and Famine Relief Workers-Studying Body Needs for Quantity and Quality of Dietary Protein
Sports Physiologists-No Strong Evidence That Protein or Amino Acids Give Competitive Advantage
Virologists and Immunologists-Proteins Are Important in Viruses and in the Immune System
Microbiologists-Will Proteins from Microbes Solve the World's Protein Supply Problems?
Toxicologists-Contamination of Some Amino Acid Supplements Can Be Deadly
Allergists-Allergic Reactions May Occur When Intact Proteins Are Absorbed from the GI Tract
Psychologists-Do Proteins Influence Behavior?

People Are Different-Vegetarianism
Nutrition in Action-Meat, Fish, Freezing, and Drying
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 9

Vitamins---Fruits and Vegetables

Vitamins in Your Life-How Much Is Enough?

Vitamins: Only Thirteen Legitimate Ones Exist

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A,D,E, and K

Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

The Water-Soluble Vitamins---Vitamin C and the B-Complex

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
B-Complex Vitamins Deal with Energy, Metabolism, and Oxygen
Vitamin B-6
Folacin and Vitamin B-12

Vitamins Vary in Their Stability
Nutrition in Action-Antioxidants
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 10

Minerals---Dairy Products

Minerals in Our Lives---Many Functions Are Vital

Minerals Perform Many Important Functions in the Body
Recommended Dietary Intake Levels of Specific Minerals Are Not Proportional to Their Functional Importance in the Body
How Do Nutritionists Learn About Minerals?
Deficiencies and Excesses of Minerals Inflict Costs

Macrominerals

Calcium and Phosphorus
Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride: The Major Electrolytes
Magnesium
Sulfur

Microminerals, or Trace Elements

Iron-The Vital Carrier of Oxygen
Zinc-Food Sources a Problem for Many People
Iodine-A Major Deficiency Problem in the World
Selenium-Will It Prevent Cancer?
Fluoride-Prevents Tooth Decay
Copper-Part of Many Enzymes
Trace Elements Recommended in Very Small Amounts

People Are Different-Clay Eating and Lead Contamination of Food and Drink
Nutrition in Action-Minerals and Dairy Products
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 11

Energy---Sources and Uses

Energy in Our Lives-More Than Just Physical Activity
Food-The Source of Energy Input to the Body

Food Is the Source of All Your Energy

Recommended Energy Intake
Energy Expenditure

Physical Activity
Basal Metabolic Rate
Facultative Thermogenesis

People Are Different-Cigarette Smoking and Body Weight
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 12

Nutrition and Physical Fitness

Nutrition and Physical Fitness in Our Lives
Oxygen-The Spark to Burn Body Energy
Food-The Fuel for Physical Activity

Energy and the Energy Nutrients
Vitamins and Minerals
Fluids and Electrolytes

Energy in the Cell

Spending Energy in Endurance Sporting Activities

Can Exercise Damage Your Health?

Exercise, Nutrition, and the Immune System
Exercise and Menstrual Disorders
Sports Anemia or Runners' Anemia
Anabolic Steroids
Some Similarities to Anorexia
Dietitians' Advice for Athletes and Exercisers

People Are Different-Variable Responses to the Effects of Exercise on Lean Body Mass
Nutrition in Action-Do Supplements Help Physical Performance?
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 13

Obesity, Starvation, and Eating Disorders

Nutrition in Our Lives-The Pain and Problems of Dietary Excesses and Deficiencies
Obesity

Factors Affecting Body Fat
Ideal Body Weight May Be Obtained from Height and Weight Tables
Body Mass Index Defines Overweight
Is the Ideal Body Weight the Same for Health and for Beauty?
Measuring Body Fat
How Is Obesity Classified?
Risks of Obesity

Losing Weight-Many Problems, Many Costs, and Many Failures

Rights Ways to Lose Body Weight
Successful Dieters Use Input from Many Sources
What Makes a Healthy Weight-Loss Diet?
Various Surgical Treatments May Reduce Obesity
Unfortunately, You Cannot Melt Away Fat
Some Do's for Dieters

Starvation and Hunger in the World

Education Is Important in Preventing Malnutrition

Eating Disorders

Causes and Treatment of Eating Disorders Are Complex

People Are Different-Do You Know Your Eating Pattern?
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 14

Nutrition and Disease

Nutrition in Our Lives-The Economic Costs of Nutrition-Related Diseases
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Cancer

Food Intake of the Cancer Patient
Diet and Cancer
Unproven Nutrition Treatments and Cancer

Hypertension and Diet
Diabetes
Coronary Heart Disease

Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease

Other Diseases
People Are Different-Low-Calorie Alternatives for the Health-Conscious
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 15

Nutrition and the Early Years

Nutrition in Our Lives-Food and Nutrient Needs Begin with the Fertilized Cell
Nutritional Status Before and During Pregnancy Is Important
Lactation: Is Breast Feeding Better Than Bottle Feeding?
Undernutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation

Premature Babies and Nutrient Intake

Weaning Foods Are Important
Toddler to Teen: A Period of Changing Eating Patterns

The Preschool Years
The Preteen Years
The Cost of Feeding a Family
Food Selection
Benefits of School Lunch and Breakfast Programs
Correction of Children's Diet Is Attracting the Attention of Nutritionists
Behavioral Problems Do Not Seem to Have a Connection with Diet

People Are Different-Supplemental Feeding Programs During Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutrition in Action-Environmental Factors and Foods Eaten by the Young
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 16

Nutrition and Food for Adults

Adolescence-Nutrient Needs and Food Acceptability

Diet and Nutrition Concerns of Teenagers Now and 100 Years Ago

Nutrition in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

Nutrition and the College Student
Gender Differences in Nutrition-Related Diseases
Nutrition and the Elderly
Nutrition-Related Changes in Body Functions
Other Health Problems

People Are Different-Some Elderly People Become Victims of Quackery and Faddism
Nutrition and Food Science in Action-Why Are No Foods Made Specifically for the Elderly?
Now You Know
Further Reading


CHAPTER 17

Nutrition, Food, and Lifestyles

Nutrition in Our Lives-Livestyles Plays a Major Role in Nutrition
Income
Occupation
Education
Ethnic Identity
Rural-Urban Residence
Religious and Ethical Beliefs
Health
Nutrition Knowledge
Physiological Characteristics
Household Structure and Composition
Now You Know
Further Reading


APPENDIX A. Table of Food Composition
APPENDIX B. Nutrition Information-Reliable Sources
APPENDIX C. The Nutrition/Environment Interface-Additional Readings
APPENDIX D. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning
APPENDIX E. Summary of Examples of Recommended Nutrients for Canadians
APPENDIX F. WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Reference Values for Food Labelling Purposes
APPENDIX G. Activities in Diet Easy for Windows™ Software

"While the text is easy to digest, the attention-grabbing graphics, in the form of colorful photos, illustrations, tables, and diagrams, provide a feast for the eyes...Although targeting students in food science and nutrition...I would recommend the book for anyone who finds himself involved in discussions on diet and health as well as to those interested in their personal nutrition."
—Prepared Foods

"...useful for the food producer, processor, and consumer."
Don Bietz, Iowa State University

"The book is extremely well written, creative, factually accurate and very readable."
—Trends in Food Science and Technology

Publish Date: 1995
Format: 8" × 10" softcover
ISBN: 978-0-9624407-4-8
Pages: 434
Images: 300+ images
Publication Weight: 3 lbs

By Vincent Hegarty

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