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Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition
Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition

The most extensive and comprehensive reference on durum wheat chemistry and technology ever written—from the leading experts in the field.

Item No. 27656
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Edited by Michael J. Sissons, Joël Abecassis, Brian Marchylo, and Marina Carcea

Editors Sissons, Abecassis, Marchylo, and Carcea have extensive experience with durum wheat and its derived products from both a research and processing perspective, and three of the four are from the world’s main durum wheat producing and exporting countries (Canada, Italy, and France). The forty-six chapter authors all have extensive experience in durum wheat production as well, and represent an impressive cross-section of academia, research institutions, marketing organizations, private consultants and industry (including some of the largest durum processing companies).

The most extensive and comprehensive reference on durum wheat chemistry and technology ever available, this ambitious update to the first edition covers more diverse and interesting topics in a new expanded format. Forty-six contributors, each highly experienced and recognized as world authorities on durum wheat, provide the latest developments in scientific research and technology. All aspects of durum wheat are covered, from agronomy and the chemical composition of the grain, to the latest industrial approaches to processing durum wheat, as well as food safety and quality assurance issues. Expanded to include new topics like functional pasta, grain safety, and biotechnology, along with practical and applied information including a table of uses for specific carbohydrates, descriptions of improved laboratory techniques, and international comparisons of HACCP experiences, Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition is a must-have reference for professionals, students, and researchers inside and outside the field who want to learn about durum wheat technology and chemistry.

New and Revised Topics Include:

  • Agronomy of durum wheat production
  • Pasta made from non-traditional raw materials: technological and nutritional aspects
  • Grain safety assurance, including impacts on durum wheat trading
  • Origin and distribution of durum wheat genetic diversity in the world
  • Genetics and breeding of durum wheat
  • Insect and mite pests and diseases of durum wheat
  • Kernel components of technological value
  • Vitamins, minerals, and nutritional value of durum wheat
  • Durum wheat milling
  • Manufacture of pasta products
  • Other traditional durum derived products
  • Methods used to assess and predict quality of durum wheat, semolina, and pasta
  • Grading factors impacting on durum wheat and processing quality
  • Grain safety assurance including impacts on durum wheat trading
  • Marketing perspectives in the durum wheat trade

Special Features:

  • Detailed figures outlining the processes used to manufacture durum products
  • International comparisons of HACCP experiences
  • Table of uses for specific carbohydrates
  • Descriptions of improved laboratory techniques
  • Extensive bibliography

An Essential Reference For:

  • Scientists and researchers in agriculture and plant biology
  • Professionals in the food industry who are processing durum wheat (millers, pasta makers, grain handling companies, and grain buyers)
  • Government regulators
  • Food scientists and technologists developing products using durum wheat
  • Plant breeders
  • University lecturers in agricultural science and plant biology
  • Professionals who market wheat
  • Nutritionists and medical practitioners interested in the impacts of food ingredients on human health
  • Students
  • Scientific libraries and their patrons

From the Preface:

The purpose of this revision is to update the knowledge and research findings on the chemistry and technology of durum wheat and derived products that have been acquired since the first edition, published in 1988. This new edition was totally restructured from the first edition. It contains new topics (agronomy, functional pasta, grain safety, biotechnology), much more detail and up-to-date research findings, and less emphasis on a country-by-country approach.

The present volume is a multiauthored work written by experts, including two authors from the first edition. The book starts with the origin and genetic diversity of durum wheat; its breeding approaches from different perspectives, including agronomic practices used to produce a durum crop; and major diseases and insect pests. These are followed by an analysis of grain composition, nutritional value, and new developments in celiac disease. Next is an extensive update from the first edition on durum wheat milling, pasta manufacture, and production of other durum wheat-derived products, together with a discussion of a new, functional-food pasta discipline.

Methods to measure and predict quality and the impact of grain-grading factors on durum are discussed. This is followed by a new section on grain safety assurance for durum wheat and its end products, concluding with a chapter on marketing perspectives in the durum wheat trade.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to AACC International, sponsor of this monograph; to the Tamworth Cereal Team for editing and ideas for the book cover; to the AACC International editorial staff for their technical assistance with the many details involved in the preparation of the book for publication; and to the following people who edited chapters of the book: Robin Gunning, Ian Batey, Stephen Simpfendorfer, Andrew Verrell, Todd Dick, and Ian Dundas.

Durum Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition

Chapter 1. Origin and Distribution of Durum Wheat Genetic Diversity in the World

Alessandro Bozzini, Jacques David, and Vincenzo Natoli

Evolution and Classification of Wheats

A Common Ancestral Genome for Grasses
Polyploidization: A Common Evolutionary Feature in Triticeae
Classification of Wheats Within a Polyploid Series
Diploid Progenitors of Wild Polyploid Wheats

Domestication and Differentiation

Crop Cereal Emergence During the Neolithic Period
The Diploid Einkorn
Wild Tetraploids and Domestication
Dissemination of Cultivated Emmer and Landrace Differentiation
Rise of the Modern T. turgidum subsp. durum and Others with Free-Threshing Subspecies
Durum Wheat Evolution Under Modern Genetic Improvement
DNA Marker Analysis of Modern Wheats
Bread Wheat and Hexaploid Forms

Sources of Genetic Diversity for Breeding

Role of Wild and Primitive Wheats
Genetic Variability in Traditional Durum Wheat Landraces
Genetic Variability in the Elite Germplasm

Chapter 2. Genetics and Breeding of Durum Wheat

John M. Clarke, Enzo Deambrogio, Raymond A. Hare, and Pierre Roumet

Overview of Breeding

North America
Other Programs

Breeding Objectives

Yield and Agronomic Traits
Resistance to Abiotic Stresses
Resistance to Diseases and Insects
End-Use and Nutritional Quality
Other Traits

Breeding Methodology

Doubled Haploids
Genetic Diversity and New Traits
Marker-Assisted Selection

Genetic Progress

Grain Yield
End-Use Quality

Future Prospects

Chapter 3. Agronomy of Durum Wheat Production

Cynthia Ann Grant, Natale Di Fonzo, and Michele Pisante

Environment of Production Area

Cultivar Selection
Crop Rotation
Tillage System
Seeding Date
Seeding Rate
Weed Control
Disease Control
Control of Insect Pests

Nutrient Management


Precision Agriculture

Environmental Considerations


Chapter 4. Diseases of Durum Wheat

Myriam R. Fernandez and Ron E. Knox

Specific Diseases

Fusarium Head Blight
Leaf Spots
Root and Crown/Foot Rot
Kernel Discoloration
Loose Smut
Bacterial Black Chaff and Bacterial Leaf Streak
Powdery Mildew

Pre- and Postharvest Infections and Disorders
Chemical Control of Diseases
Biological Control of Diseases
Micronutrients and Diseases
Marker-Assisted Selection
Challenges and Future Needs

Chapter 5. Insect and Mite Pests of Durum Wheat

Pasquale Trematerra and James Throne

Insect Pests

Internal Feeders
External Feeders

Mite Pests
Pest Management

Chapter 6. Kernel Components of Technological Value

Domenico Lafiandra, Stefania Masci, Mike Sissons, Emmie Dornez, Jan A. Delcour, Christophe M. Courtin, and Maria Fiorenza Caboni


Protein Content
Kernel Proteins


Starch Structure and Composition
Durum Wheat Starch vs. Common Wheat Starch
Role of Starch in Influencing Dough and Pasta Quality
Changes in Starch During Pasta Processing
Starch Degradation in Pasta During Enzymic Digestion

Nonstarch Polysaccharides and Enzymes that Hydrolyze Them

Arabinogalactan Peptide

Durum Wheat Lipids

Composition of Grain Lipids
Polar Lipids

Chapter 7. Vitamins, Minerals, and Nutritional Value of Durum Wheat

Cynthia Grant, Francesco Cubadda, Marina Carcea, Norberto E. Pogna, and Laura Gazza


Vitamin Content
Mineral Composition
Dietary Fiber
Other Nutritional Compounds in Durum Wheat
Effect of Processing and Cooking on Nutritive Value
Practices to Increase Nutritional Quality

Durum Wheat and Celiac Disease

Genetic, Biological, and Immunologic Aspects of CD
Prolamins as Immunostimulatory Agents in CD
Therapy for CD in Relation to Durum Wheat


Chapter 8. Durum Wheat Milling

Wolfgang Gruber and Ashok Sarkar

Durum Milling Process

Reception of Grain
Milling Machines
Grinding Stages in Durum Milling
Flow Sheet Technology for Durum Milling
Other Systems in the Mill

Handling of Finished Products

Blending and Storage of Semolina
Safety and Hygiene of Product
Product Analysis

Milling Quality Requirements for Other Durum-Wheat End Products

Durum Wheat Flour for Bread
Durum Wheat Flour for Yellow Alkaline Noodles
Durum Wheat Flour for Chapatti
Sheeted Products


Chapter 9. Manufacture of Pasta Products

Claudio M. Pollini, Francesco Pantò, Antonio Nespoli, Mike Sissons, and Joel Abecassis

Raw Materials for Pasta Production
Pasta-Dough Formation, Extrusion, and Shaping on an Industrial scale

Raw Material Dosing
Hydration and Mixing-Kneading
Extrusion and Shaping of Pasta

Physicochemical Changes During Pasta-Dough Formation and Extrusion and Implications for Pasta Quality
Pasta Drying Technology

Technological Principles of Pasta Drying
Moisture Transfer During Drying
Phase Transition and Checking
Long-Cut Pasta Dryer Design and Technology
Short-Cut Pasta Dryer Design and Technology

Impact of Drying Conditions on Pasta Characteristics

Physicochemical Changes During Pasta Drying and Implications for Pasta Quality
Effects of Drying Temperature on Starch and Protein Components


Chapter 10. Other Traditional Durum-Derived Products

Joel Abecassis, Bernard Cuq, Gaetano Boggini, and Hacène Namoune

Durum Wheat Products from Grains

Other Durum Grain Products

Semolina Agglomeration in the Form of Couscous

Couscous Attributes of Quality
Raw Materials for Couscous Production
Couscous Processing

Durum Wheat Products from Baking

Durum Wheat Bread
Diverse Durum Breads
Durum Pastry


Chapter 11. Pasta Made from Nontraditional Raw Materials: Technological and Nutritional Aspects

Emanuele Marconi and Maria Cristina Messia

Reasons for Using Nontraditional Raw Materials in Pasta Making

Improvement of Nutritional Properties
Use of Local Raw Materials
Production of Gluten-Free Pasta
Valorization of Cereal and Noncereal By-Products
Development of Tailor-Made and Functional Foods
Use, Recovery, or Valorization of Ancient, Obsolete, or Underutilized Wheats and Pseudocereals

Pasta Making: Formulations and Processing

Balanced Formulations
Modification of Traditional Processing Technologies or Adoption of Alternative Technologies


Chapter 12. Methods Used to Assess and Predict Quality of Durum Wheat, Semolina, and Pasta

Mike Sissons, Joël Abecassis, Brian Marchylo, and Raimondo Cubadda

Wheat Quality Methods

Test Weight
Weight per Thousand Kernels
Hard Vitreous Kernel Count
Moisture Content
Sprout Damage
Ash Content
Protein Content
Gluten Strength
Wheat Yellow Pigment Content

Semolina Milling Quality Assessment

Definitions and Influencing Factors
Methods for Assessing Durum Milling Quality

Pasta Quality Assessment

Pasta Quality Evaluation Tests
Laboratory Pasta-Making Tests
Instrumental Methods to Determine Pasta Cooking Quality Other Methods

Emerging Small-Scale, Rapid Quality-Prediction Methods

Biochemical Tests to Predict Gluten Quality
Glutenin-to-Gliadin Ratio and Percentage of Unextractable Polymeric Protein
Allelic Variation as an Indicator of Gluten Quality
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations to Predict Quality from Grain or Wholemeal
Image Analysis to Assess Quality
Antibodies to Assess Quality
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Chapter 13. Grading Factors Impacting Durum Wheat Processing Quality

James E. Dexter and Maria Grazia D’egidio

Factors Affecting Edibility

Fusarium Damage

Factors Affecting Processing

Test Weight
Dockage and Foreign Material
Protein Content
Wheat of Other Classes
Hard Vitreous Kernels
Frost Damage and Immaturity
Weathering and Mildew
Sprout Damage
Heat Damage
Smudge and Black Point
Shrunken and Broken Kernels
Insect Damage During Kernel Maturation


Chapter 14. Grain Safety Assurance, Including Impacts on Durum Wheat Trading

Thomas W. Nowicki, Randall M. Clear, Eugene J. Gawalko, and Michelangelo Pascale


Historical Perspective on Grain Safety Assurance

Major Food Safety Issues for Durum Wheat Marketing

Grain Safety Hazards
Major Issues

Key Factors and Trends

Increasing Awareness and Knowledge About Food Safety
Laboratory Capabilities for Trace-Level Measurement of Toxic Substances
Food Safety Regulations and Controls
Communication of Food Safety Incidents
Trade Irritations

Marketing Realities Concerning Food Safety

Types of Customer Demands
HACCP Programs

The Analytical Process

Measurement Error
Major Challenges

Basic Elements, Objectives, and Strategies of Grain Safety Assurance

Grain Safety Assurance in Canada

Fate and Retention of Mycotoxins in Wheat upon Processing

Chapter 15. Marketing Perspectives in the Durum Wheat Trade

Roberto Ranieri, Graham Worden, María Laura Seghezzo, and Cindy Mills

Worldwide Marketing of Durum Wheat

The United States
Other Producers

Other Factors Influencing Marketing and Pricing

Publish Date: 2012
Format: 8.5" x 11" hardcover
ISBN: 978-1-891127-65-6
Pages: 300
Images: 59 color images; 41 black and white images
Publication Weight: 2 lbs

Edited by Michael J. Sissons, Joël Abecassis, Brian Marchylo, and Marina Carcea

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