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The study of barley and malt is a specialized area, and limited sources of literature are dedicated to this topic. Malt, the first title in the new ASBC series Practical Brewing Science, provides a comprehensive overview of the underlying scientific and technical principles of malt and its substantial impact on beer quality—from the grain in the field to the beer on the table.

Drawing on more than 30 years of experience, Xiang S. Yin bridges the fundamentals of research on malt through a synthesis of previous and current literature. Readers will learn about the most recent advances in scientific research on malt and malting and the impact on brewing processes and yeast fermentation, as well as beer quality, flavor, and stability. Much of the information is from original research conducted in the author’s own industrial setting.

Yin uses simple terms to describe the fundamentals of biochemistry, microbiology, and sensory science and makes connections between the science and real-world applications. Two chapters detail the microbiological aspects of malt, and one chapter explores sprouted grains and their broader application in food and beverage production. Yin also discusses the engineering principles of malting and discusses how new technology will advance innovation and sustainability in the industry. These discussions are supplemented by 168 figures, 70 tables, and more than 420 reference citations.

Watch for other books in the ASBC series Practical Brewing Science, an initiative to provide readers with updated understanding and knowledge in various disciplines associated with the science of beer. In Malt and the forthcoming books in the series, the contents are presented mainly as concepts and principles, but original references are included where applicable.

Malt offers something for everyone, whether the reader is a student, a researcher, a maltster, a brewer, or simply a beer lover.

Malt: Practical Brewing Science

1. Introduction

2. Barley

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Origin and Classification
2.3. Botany
2.4. Cultivation and Growth
2.5. Variety Development
2.6. Selection and Grading

3. Biochemical Changes During Malting

3.1. The Composition of Barley
3.2. Starch and Its Degradation
3.3. Proteins and Proteolysis
3.4. Cell Walls and Their Degradation
3.5. Lipids and Their Degradation
3.6. Phenolic Compounds
3.7. Physical and Biochemical Changes in Barley Kernels During Processing
3.8. Production of Malt Volatiles/Maillard Reactions
3.9. Dimethyl Sulfide Precursor
3.10. N-Nitrosodimethylamine

4. Malting Operations

4.1. Overview
4.2. Steeping
4.3. Germination
4.4. Kilning
4.5. Specialty Malt Production

5. Principles of Malting Engineering

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Basic Concepts of Malting Engineering
5.3. Fan Curve and Operating Principles
5.4. Steeping Engineering
5.5. Germination Engineering
5.6. Kiln Engineering

6. Interpretation of the Malt Certificate of Analysis

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Physical Analyses
6.3. Chemical and Wort Analyses
6.4. Enzyme Analyses
6.5. Other Malt Analyses
6.6. Conclusion

7. Impact of Malt Quality on Brewing

7.1. Malt Milling and Control of Grist Fineness
7.2. Malt Enzymes and Their Effect on Brewing
7.3. Conclusion

8. Impact of Malt Quality on Fermentation

8.1. Predictability of Fermentation Performance by Congress Wort Analyses
8.2. Impact of Fermentable Sugar Potential on Fermentation Performance
8.3. Impact of Assimilable Nitrogen Potential on Fermentation Performance

9. Impact of Malt on General Beer Quality

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Impact on Beer Color
9.3. Impact on Beer Foam and Stability
9.4. Impact on Colloidal Stability
9.5. Conclusion

10. Malt Contribution to the Flavor Profile of Beer

10.1. Introduction
10.2. Genotype by Environmental (G × E) Factors
10.3. Malting Process Factors
10.4. Conclusion

11. Malt Impact on Flavor Stability of Beer

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Lipoxygenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
11.3. Strecker Degradation and Oxidative Reactions of Amino Acids
11.4. Free Radical Reactions as Measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
11.5. Conclusion

12. Requirement of Attributes from Specialty Malt by Beer Style

12.1. Introduction
12.2. Lagers and Their Malt Requirements
12.3. Ales and Their Malt Requirements
12.4. Strong Ales and Their Malt Requirements
12.5. Dark Beers and Their Malt Requirements
12.6. Wheat Beers and Their Malt Requirements
12.7. Other Beer Styles

13. Malt from Other Cereals

13.1. Introduction
13.2. Hulless Barley Malt
13.3. Wheat Malt
13.4. Rice Malt
13.5. Sorghum Malt
13.6. Rye Malt
13.7. Maize Malt
13.8. Millet Malt and Buckwheat Malt
13.9. Teff Malt and Quinoa Malt
13.10. Oat Malt

14. Microflora Associated with Barley and Malt and Their Impacts on Malt Quality

14.1. Introduction
14.2. Impact on Enzymes and on the Malting and Brewing Processes
14.3. Impact on Mycotoxin Levels
14.4. Impact on Beer Gushing Potential
14.5. Conclusion

15. Microflora Associated with Barley and Malt and Their Impacts on Premature Yeast Flocculation

15.1. Introduction
15.2. Detection of the PYF Potential of Malt
15.3. Possible Causes and Mechanisms
15.4. Monitoring and Prevention of PYF

16. Sprouted Grains for Food and Beverage Applications

16.1. Introduction
16.2. Sprouted Wheat
16.3. Sprouted Rice (Pregerminated Rice)
16.4. Sprouted Oats
16.5. Sprouted Pulse Seeds
16.6. Conclusion

17. Principal Considerations for Handling and Storage of Malt

17.1. Introduction
17.2. Management of Grain and Malt Moisture
17.3. Control of Malt Breakage
17.4. Change of Enzyme Activities During Storage
17.5. Malt Transferring Equipment
17.6. Prevention of Grain Dust Explosions

18. Innovations for Better and Sustainable Barley and Malt

18.1. Introduction
18.2. UAV Technology for Raw Material Selection
18.3. Sustainable Malting and Steep Water Conservation
18.4. Minimization of Malting Loss
18.5. In Situ Monitoring of Malting Progress
18.6. Homogeneous Kilning of a Malt Batch
18.7. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
18.8. Breeding Through New Molecular Technologies
18.9. A Holistic Approach to Create Malt-Forward Beers


A Commonly Used Abbreviations and Acronyms
B Major Commercial Malting Companies: Production Capacity in Thousands of Metric Tons
C1 Selection of Base Malts Commercially Available in North America
C2 Partial List of Specialty Malts Commercially Available in North America
D Malt Color Conversion from ASBC to EBC
E Malt Diastatic Power (DP) Conversion from ASBC to EBC
F Temperature Conversion from °C to °F
G Commonly Used Conversions and Calculations



“It is a great feeling to have in your hands a book that you know to have been written by someone who ‘gets it.’ Xiang Yin is one such person. He has lived the life in the world of malt, from the most fundamental of academic explorations through to the commercial production and use of malt on the largest of scales. He knows his stuff, and he knows, too, how to deliver that knowledge to the reader. I thoroughly recommend this book, which was written by a thoroughly nice guy.”
—Charles W. Bamforth, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University of California–Davis

“MALT, by Dr. Xiang S. Yin, fills the void for anyone wanting up to date and best knowledge on MALT! Front to back, it’s a biochemist’s ode to maltsters for both brewing and distilling. Or maybe it’s a maltster's ode to the transformation of barley to malt. Whichever, it is a storyteller’s gift, as it weaves what is needed as a primer and reference for all things barley to malt. Updated, factual, in depth, and full of information for bench-top brewer to research scientist. Timely and refreshing, practical and significant, MALT is a resource for those that brew or distill.”
—Rebecca Newman, ASBC Past-President, Lagunitas Brewing

“MALT is clearly written to provide an essential resource for readers looking to view the connection between their malt supply and their beer quality and day-to-day brewery operations through the lens of science. Dr. Yin achieves this by effortlessly guiding readers through the fundamentals of chemistry, microbiology, and sensory science while seamlessly making connections to practical applications. Therefore, this book is certain to make an outstanding addition to the bookshelf in any brewery, big or small.
—Scott J. Britton, ASBC Past-President, Sr. Scientist, Duvel Moortgat

Publish Date: 2021
Format: 8” x 10” softcover
ISBN: 978-1-881696-53-7
Pages: 314
Publication Weight: 2 lbs

By Xiang S. Yin

Malt: Practical Brewing Science

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