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Rye and Health
Rye and Health

Unlock the secrets of rye and Its many health effects through this timely book from the world's experts.

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Rye has been known to stimulate weight loss, prevent gallstones, lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, promote gastrointestinal health, and improve cardiovascular conditions.

Due to rye’s many health benefits, it’s no wonder that nutritionists, the grains industry, and in turn consumers, have been giving this healthy grain much more attention.

Rye and Health, edited by veteran food technology and nutrition scientists Kaisa Poutanen and Per Åman, explains in detail the composition of rye and its physiological and health effects on humans using the latest research and information available.

This important new book covers…

  • The chemical composition of rye
  • Applications of rye in food production
  • The digestion of rye dietary fiber and its effects on gut metabolism
  • The many bioactive compounds of rye—including lignans, alkylresorcinols, phenolic acids, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols—and their importance in human health
  • Up-to-date findings on biomarkers and how they can be used in intervention and epidemiological studies to link rye intake with disease risk
  • Rye’s influence on glucose levels and other satiating effects
  • Relationships between rye intake and certain Western diseases such as type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer

People with a variety of professional backgrounds will find this book useful, including rye producers and breeders, those working in the rye processing industries, food product developers, nutritionists, health professionals, and producers of rye-based baked goods.

Rye and Health


Chapter 1

Rye and Rye Bread–An Important Part of the North European Bread Basket

Kaisa Poutanen

Production and Uses of Rye
Chemical Composition of Rye Grain
Consumption and Nutritional Significance of Rye and Rye Bread

Chapter 2

Process-Induced Changes in Rye Foods—Rye Baking

Kati Katina, Katri Hartikainen, and Kaisa Poutanen

Rye Sourdough
Sourdough Bread Types * Sourdough Processes
Sourdough-Induced Changes in the Rye Matrix
Effect of Sourdough on Dough Properties * Effects of Sourdough on Bread Quality * Antioxidant Activity
Summary

Chapter 3

Rye Dietary Fiber

Annica A. M. Andersson, Allah Rakha, Roger Andersson, and Per Åman

The Rye Caryopsis
Definition of Dietary Fiber
Analysis of Dietary Fiber
Cell-Wall Components of Dietary Fiber in Rye
Cellulose * Mixed-Linkageb-Glucan * Lignin * Arabinoxylan
Noncell-Wall Components of Dietary Fiber in Rye
Arabinogalactan-Peptides * Fructan
Dietary Fiber Content in Rye and Rye Products
Rye Grain and Milling Fractions * Rye Products
Processing Effects on Rye Dietary Fiber
Total Dietary Fiber * Arabinoxylan *b-Glucan * Fructan
Conclusions

Chapter 4

The Influence of Rye Fiber on Gut Metabolism

Knud Erik Bach Knudsen and Helle Nygaard Lærke

Dietary Fiber in Rye Flours and Bread
Effects of Rye Fiber on Substrates Available for Fermentation
Total Effluent * Carbohydrates * Protein * Fat and Bile Acids
Metabolism in the Large Intestine
Environment * Degradation of Carbohydrates * Short-Chain Fatty Acids and pH * Protein * Fat and Bile Acids
Fecal Bulking and Mean Transit Time
Physiological and Health Effects
Summary

Chapter 5

Bioavailability of Rye Lignans and Their Relevance for Human Health

José L. Peñalvo, Kati Hanhineva, and Herman Adlercreutz

Content and Analytical Procedures
Methods for the Quantification of Lignans in Food Items and Biological Fluids * Lignans in Rye and Rye-Derived Products
Bioavailability
Absorption and Metabolism * Distribution, Elimination, and Recovery of Lignans * Factors Affecting Lignan Bioavailability
Relevance of Dietary Lignans for Human Health
Mechanisms by Which Lignans May Exert Their Effects * Lignans and Hormone-Dependent Cancers * Lignans and Coronary Heart Disease

Chapter 6

Alkylresorcinols in Rye: Occurrence, Pharmacokinetics, and Bioavailability

Rikard Landberg, Matti Marklund, Annica Andersson, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, and Per Åman

Occurrence and Levels in Different Grains
Environmental Effects on AR Content in Cereal Grains * AR Content in Foods
Pharmacokinetics
Absorption * Distribution * Metabolism * Excretion * Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7

Phenolic Acids in Rye

Anna-Marja Aura

Chemistry
Concentrations of Phenolic Acids in Rye Grain
Bioavailability of Rye Phenolic Acids
Health Benefits

Chapter 8

Benzoxazinoids in Rye and Rye-Derived Products

K. Hanhineva, J. Pihlava, H. Mykkänen, and K. Poutanen

Chemical Properties of the Benzoxazinoid Metabolite Family
Benzoxazinoids in Rye
Benzoxazinoids in Rye Food Products
Bioavailability of Benzoxazinoids
Bioactivity of Benzoxazinoids
Future Prospects

Chapter 9

Rye as a Source of Phytosterols, Tocopherols, and Tocotrienols

Vieno Piironen and Anna-Maija Lampi

Phytosterols
Phytosterols as Bioactive Compounds in Cereal Foods and Diets * Phytosterols in Rye Grains * Phytosterols in Milling Fractions * Phytosterol Conjugates
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols
Role of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Cereal Foods and Diets * Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Rye Grains * Effects of Environmental Factors on Total Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Contents and Compositions * Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Milling Fractions of Rye * Effects of Food Preparation and Processing Methods and Storage on Tocopherols and Tocotrienols
Conclusions

Chapter 10

Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites as Biomarkers of Whole-Grain Rye and Wheat Intake

Rikard Landberg, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Matti Marklund, Herman Adlercreutz, and Per Åman

Dietary Biomarkers: Concepts and Definitions
Classification of Dietary Biomarkers * Biomarker Validity and Reproducibility * Identification of New Biomarkers * Evaluation of a Dietary Biomarker
Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites as Biomarkers of Whole-Grain Rye and Wheat Intake
Analyzing Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites in Samples from Humans
Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites as Biomarkers Under Controlled Intervention Conditions
Dose Response * Temporal Aspects
Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites as Biomarkers Under Free-Living Conditions
Reproducibility of Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites * Evaluation of Nondietary Determinants of Alkylresorcinols * Relative Validity of Alkylresorcinols and Their Metabolites as Biomarkers
Which Biomarker Is Most Accurate?
Conclusions

Chapter 11

Satiating Effects of Rye Foods

Hanna Isaksson

Satiety Measures
Investigating the Satiating Effects of Rye Foods
The Visual Analogue Scale * Participants * Objective Measures
Satiating Effects of Rye Foods
Breads * Porridges and Whole Rye Kernels * Satiating Effects of Cereal Dietary Fiber * Applicability
Proposed Mechanisms
Intact Botanical Structure Acting as a Physical Barrier * Colonic Fermentation * Gastric Distension and Emptying Rate * Hormonal Responses
Conclusion

Chapter 12

Rye Products and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Rikard Landberg, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Kaisa Poutanen, Hannu Mykkänen, and Göran Hallmans

The Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
Whole Grain and Prevention of T2D
Evidence from Observational Studies * Whole Grain × Gene Interaction Modulation of T2D Risk * Evidence from Human Intervention Studies
Impact of Whole Grain and Rye in Diabetic Patients
Conclusion

Chapter 13

Impact of Rye Food and Physical Activity on Prostate Cancer Progression

Rikard Landberg, Rikke Dalgaard Hansen, Ali Moazzami, Jie-Xian Zhang, Anne Tjønneland, Per Åman, and Göran Hallmans

Conservative Prostate Cancer Treatment
Obesity and Prostate Cancer
Insulin and Prostate Cancer
Rye and Insulin
Energy Restriction and Prostate Cancer
Rye As a “Natural Calorie-Restrictive Food” for Animals and Humans
Energy-Saving Effect and Improved Energy Utilization in Diabetes * Effect of Rye Fiber on Feed Intake, Feed Conversion Ratio, and Animal Growth * Effects on Nutrient Digestibility and Absorption and on Energy Excretion in Humans * Improved Postprandial Glycemic or Insulin Profile and Decreased Appetite * Effects on Adiposity and Adipose Cell Size and Signaling Related to Energy Metabolism, Stress Reactions, and Insulin Metabolism * Effects on Apoptosis, PCa Morphology, and Prostate Gland Weight Related to Rye * Shift in Energy Metabolism from Glucose to Ketone Bodies After Rye Whole Grain and Bran Intervention
Rye, Whole Grain, and Obesity
Effects of Rye on Prostate Tumor Growth in Animals and Humans
The Lifestyle Intervention Concept of Combining Rye and Physical Activity
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14

Rye Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Herman Adlercreutz and Cecilie Kyrø

Overview
Colorectal Cancer * Intake of Dietary Fiber or Whole Grain and Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Possible Mechanisms
Dietary Fiber * Role of Bile Acids * Antioxidants * Lignans and Estrogen Receptors * Role of Intestinal Microflora
Summary and Conclusions

Index
Publish Date: 2014
Format: 6”x 9” hardcover
ISBN: 978-1-891127-81-6
Pages: 280
Images: 28 images
Publication Weight: 2 lbs

Edited by Kaisa Poutanen and Per Åman

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